It is a process which involves the group activity in which one person is assigned a duty to supervise, the person who supervise the process is called supervisor.
Teacher + students àlearning process is supervised by a supervisor
Supervision is a process through which students and teachers are to be stimulated for the achievement of the goal i.e. better learning process.
i. In general, the term supervision is applied to the process of coordinating group activities in such away as to attain desirable goal of the institution or organization.
ii. The function of educational supervision is to stimulate teachers and students for the better utilization of teaching learning process to make it efficient and effective.
c. Functions of Supervisor
i. The interpretation of educational objectives
The object of education should be clear to the supervisor.
ii. Improving curriculum and teaching materials
To know the curriculum and the modern teaching and new teaching methods, modification of teaching methods and techniques.
iii. Evaluation of individuals’ ability
Evaluation of both students as well as evaluation of teachers. Progress of students and abilities of teachers (class questions / quizzes, examination, test are to test students ability) are evaluated.
iv. To provide guidance service
Guidance for students as well as for teachers, who is responsible to provide guidance, it is the responsibility of the supervisor. It may be principal, class teacher, subject specialist and may be any councilor etc.
v. To evaluate educational outcomes
Outcome of all the educational activities what type of activities are to be carried out?, what will be their results?. It is not only academic but all others activities like, sports, dramas, debate etc. i.e. curricular and co-curricular activities and the educational are evaluated on the basis of their outcome.
vi. To improve supervisory techniques
The procedure adopted by a supervisor to improve the system. He should know basic needs, psychology, sociology of the individual under control and their professional interest, behavior, attitude as well.
vii. To stimulate creative ability
To stimulate creative behavior for some purpose of students and teachers, Higher studies etc. is a function of supervision.
d. Objectives of supervision
i. To improve the professional ability of the teaching staff. It can be improved by classrooms observation and certain reference courses. Supervisor himself should be professionally strong. Then he can guide the teachers for better teaching with better procedures.
ii. To provide educational leadership. It is provided through supervision. Supervisor should be qualified, and he / she must know the qualities of an educational leader. He / She should handle all the problems and difficult situations that arise in the institution. He should be able to convince others.
iii. To improve the instructional techniques, a folder is to be maintained. Improvement to be suggested by the supervision. (Frequent visits of classroom, folder in which the problems should be mentioned).
iv. To improve overall efficiency of school (All academic, co-curricular and extra-curricular activity).
v. To check educational standard. He should check the educational system, level and areas.
vi. To check weak areas of system
vii. To evaluate the educational work.
viii. To provide technical facilities
ix. Motivation of students and teachers
x. Educational planning. One year, 6 months, 3 months etc.
xi. To provide confidence to the teachers.
xii. To help budgeting of school
xiii. To carry out social activities in schools
xiv. Relationship of school and society
xv. To help in research activities in teaching methods, training etc.
e. Principles of supervision
i. Leadership and cooperation must be based on democratic principles/
ii. Tact’s: tactfulness is required for supervision (the psychology & sociology are the tools of administrators for tactfulness)
iii. Creativity principles
iv. Integration (uniting all the efforts are to be linked together)
v. Planning (key factor)
a. System of the school planning
b. Library, laboratory etc.
vi. Flexibility (stand by procedures and stand by programmers should be there)
a. Supervisor himself (check)
b. Overall evaluation of different areas, teachers’ evaluation, students’ evaluation, relationship of school to the society, evaluation of income and expenditure etc.
f. Types of supervision
Supervision has the following types of supervisor:
a) Corrective supervision
To correct subordinate is the duty of the supervisor.
b) Preventive supervision
Supervision uses his authority and guide subordinates as well. He knows the problems of the subordinates.
c) Creative supervision
The professional knowledge counts much. He should know all the methods, experiences and have certain creative work for the uplift of education.